[ACCEPTED]-Validate an XML File Against Multiple Schema Definitions-xerces

Accepted answer
Score: 18

So just in case anybody else runs into the 12 same issue here, I needed to load a parent 11 schema (and implicit child schemas) from 10 a unit test - as a resource - to validate 9 an XML String. I used the Xerces XMLSchemFactory 8 to do this along with the Java 6 validator.

In 7 order to load the child schema's correctly 6 via an include I had to write a custom resource 5 resolver. Code can be found here:


To use 4 the resolver specify it on the schema factory:

xmlSchemaFactory.setResourceResolver(new ResourceResolver());

and 3 it will use it to resolve your resources 2 via the classpath (in my case from src/main/resources). Any 1 comments are welcome on this...

Score: 7

http://www.kdgregory.com/index.php?page=xml.parsing section 'Multiple schemas for a single document'

My solution based on that document:

URL xsdUrlA = this.getClass().getResource("a.xsd");
URL xsdUrlB = this.getClass().getResource("b.xsd");
URL xsdUrlC = this.getClass().getResource("c.xsd");

SchemaFactory schemaFactory = schemaFactory.newInstance(XMLConstants.W3C_XML_SCHEMA_NS_URI);
"<?xml version=\"1.0\" encoding=\"UTF-8\" standalone=\"yes\"?>\n"
   + "<xs:schema xmlns:xs=\"http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema\" elementFormDefault=\"qualified\">\n"
   + "<xs:include schemaLocation=\"" +xsdUrlA.getPath() +"\"/>\n"
   + "<xs:include schemaLocation=\"" +xsdUrlB.getPath() +"\"/>\n"
   + "<xs:include schemaLocation=\"" +xsdUrlC.getPath() +"\"/>\n"
Schema schema = schemaFactory.newSchema(new StreamSource(new StringReader(W3C_XSD_TOP_ELEMENT), "xsdTop"));


Score: 2

The schema stuff in Xerces is (a) very, very 14 pedantic, and (b) gives utterly useless 13 error messages when it doesn't like what 12 it finds. It's a frustrating combination.

The 11 schema stuff in python may be a lot more 10 forgiving, and was letting small errors 9 in the schema go past unreported.

Now if, as 8 you say, c.xsd includes b.xsd, and b.xsd 7 includes a.xsd, then there's no need to 6 load all three into the schema factory. Not 5 only is it unnecessary, it will likely confuse 4 Xerces and result in errors, so this may 3 be your problem. Just pass c.xsd to the 2 factory, and let it resolve b.xsd and a.xsd 1 itself, which it should do relative to c.xsd.

Score: 2

From the xerces documentation : http://xerces.apache.org/xerces2-j/faq-xs.html

import javax.xml.transform.Source;
import javax.xml.transform.stream.StreamSource;
import javax.xml.validation.Schema;
import javax.xml.validation.SchemaFactory;
import javax.xml.validation.Validator;


StreamSource[] schemaDocuments = /* created by your application */;
Source instanceDocument = /* created by your application */;

SchemaFactory sf = SchemaFactory.newInstance(
Schema s = sf.newSchema(schemaDocuments);
Validator v = s.newValidator();


Score: 2

I faced the same problem and after investigating 2 found this solution. It works for me.

Enum to 1 setup the different XSDs:

public enum XsdFile {
    // @formatter:off
    // @formatter:on

    private final String value;

    private XsdFile(String value) {
        this.value = value;

    public String getValue() {
        return this.value;

Method to validate:

public static void validateXmlAgainstManyXsds() {
    final SchemaFactory schemaFactory = SchemaFactory.newInstance(XMLConstants.W3C_XML_SCHEMA_NS_URI);

    String xmlFile;
    xmlFile = "example.xml";

    // Use of Enum class in order to get the different XSDs
    Source[] sources = new Source[XsdFile.class.getEnumConstants().length];
    for (XsdFile xsdFile : XsdFile.class.getEnumConstants()) {
        sources[xsdFile.ordinal()] = new StreamSource(xsdFile.getValue());

    try {
        final Schema schema = schemaFactory.newSchema(sources);
        final Validator validator = schema.newValidator();
        System.out.println("Validating " + xmlFile + " against XSDs " + Arrays.toString(sources));
        validator.validate(new StreamSource(new File(xmlFile)));
    } catch (Exception exception) {
        System.out.println("ERROR: Unable to validate " + xmlFile + " against XSDs " + Arrays.toString(sources)
                + " - " + exception);
    System.out.println("Validation process completed.");
Score: 1

I ended up using this:

import org.apache.xerces.parsers.SAXParser;
import org.xml.sax.SAXException;
import org.xml.sax.SAXParseException;
import org.xml.sax.helpers.DefaultHandler;
import java.io.IOException;
 try {
        SAXParser parser = new SAXParser();
        parser.setFeature("http://xml.org/sax/features/validation", true);
        parser.setFeature("http://apache.org/xml/features/validation/schema", true);
        parser.setFeature("http://apache.org/xml/features/validation/schema-full-checking", true);
        parser.setProperty("http://apache.org/xml/properties/schema/external-noNamespaceSchemaLocation", "http://your_url_schema_location");

        Validator handler = new Validator();
        parser.parse("file:///" + "/home/user/myfile.xml");

 } catch (SAXException e) {
 } catch (IOException ex) {

class Validator extends DefaultHandler {
    public boolean validationError = false;
    public SAXParseException saxParseException = null;

    public void error(SAXParseException exception)
            throws SAXException {
        validationError = true;
        saxParseException = exception;

    public void fatalError(SAXParseException exception)
            throws SAXException {
        validationError = true;
        saxParseException = exception;

    public void warning(SAXParseException exception)
            throws SAXException {

Remember to change:

1) The 3 parameter "http://your_url_schema_location" for you xsd file location.

2) The 2 string "/home/user/myfile.xml" for the one pointing to your xml 1 file.

I didn't have to set the variable: -Djavax.xml.validation.SchemaFactory:http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema=org.apache.xerces.jaxp.validation.XMLSchemaFactory

Score: 1

Just in case, anybody still come here to 3 find the solution for validating xml or 2 object against multiple XSDs, I am mentioning 1 it here

//Using **URL** is the most important here. With URL, the relative paths are resolved for include, import inside the xsd file. Just get the parent level xsd here (not all included xsds).

URL xsdUrl = getClass().getClassLoader().getResource("my/parent/schema.xsd");

SchemaFactory schemaFactory = SchemaFactory.newInstance(XMLConstants.W3C_XML_SCHEMA_NS_URI);
Schema schema = schemaFactory.newSchema(xsdUrl);

JAXBContext jaxbContext = JAXBContext.newInstance(MyClass.class);
Unmarshaller unmarshaller = jaxbContext.createUnmarshaller();

/* If you need to validate object against xsd, uncomment this
ObjectFactory objectFactory = new ObjectFactory();
JAXBElement<MyClass> wrappedObject = objectFactory.createMyClassObject(myClassObject); 
marshaller.marshal(wrappedShipmentMessage, new DefaultHandler());

Score: 0

If all XSDs belong to the same namespace 3 then create a new XSD and import other XSDs 2 into it. Then in java create schema with 1 the new XSD.

Schema schema = xmlSchemaFactory.newSchema(
    new StreamSource(this.getClass().getResourceAsStream("/path/to/all_in_one.xsd"));

all_in_one.xsd :

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<xs:schema xmlns:xs="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"

    <xs:include schemaLocation="relative/path/to/a.xsd"></xs:include>
    <xs:include schemaLocation="relative/path/to/b.xsd"></xs:include>
    <xs:include schemaLocation="relative/path/to/c.xsd"></xs:include>


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